ELISA is an acronym for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This is essentially a commonly used laboratory technique for measuring the level of concentration an analyte has in a solution. Analyte is typically used in reference to antigens or antibodies.mensclub24.ru
EIA or enzyme immunoassay is the basic form of ELISA. It can be differentiated from other types of antibody-based assays by the separation of non-specific and specific interactions . This takes place through serial binding to solid surfaces. A polystyrene multiwell plate is a solid surface on which binding commonly takes place. Quantitative results can also be attained through this method.sports74.ru
A colored product results from the steps of the ELISA and it correlates to the quantity of analyte found in the original sample. Carrying out ELISAs is a fast and easy process. They are intended for rapidly handling a huge numbers of samples in parallel. As such, they are a tremendously popular option for the analysis of many different diagnostic and research targets.
In the early 1970, ELISAs were developed to replace radioimmunoassays. They are still very widely used in their original format. However, modified and expanded formats have been developed. This has enabled direct cell-based output, extremely sensitive readouts and numerous analytes per well.
ELISA can use antibodies that are either monoclonal or polyclonal. Monoclonal antibodies are derived from hybridomas, which are unique antibody-producing cells with the capacity to bind to a single epitope. Polyclonal antibodies are purified from animal sera and they have the capacity to bind to multiple epitopes. Four basic ELISA formats exist, which enables some amount of flexibility. Adjustments can also be made based on required results, the antibodies available or the difficulty of the samples.
While both monoclonals and polyclonals antibodies can be used in ELISA, the latter is more commonly utilized as a secondary layer of detection in indirect ELISAs. Monoclonal antibodies are more widely used for primary detection or to capture antigen.
In its simplest formats, ELISA can provide a wealth of information. However, versions that are more complex can be used if particular reagents are unavailable. These advanced versions can also be used to produce results that are more precise and enhanced signals.